你可以使用访问令牌通过持续集成 (CI) 系统测试私有 npm 包,或使用持续部署 (CD) 系统部署它们。

You can use access tokens to test private npm packages with continuous integration (CI) systems, or deploy them using continuous deployment (CD) systems.

创建新的访问令牌

Create a new access token

创建一个仅用于从 CI/CD 服务器访问 npm 包的新访问令牌。

Create a new access token that will be used only to access npm packages from a CI/CD server.

持续集成

Continuous integration

在生成用于持续集成环境的访问令牌时,我们建议使用具有有限访问权限的粒度访问令牌以提供更高的安全性。

When generating an access token for use in a continuous integration environment, we recommend using a granular access token with limited access to provide greater security.

如果你改用旧版令牌,则默认情况下,npm token create 将生成具有读写权限的令牌。我们建议创建一个只读令牌:

If you use a legacy token instead, by default, npm token create will generate a token with both read and write permissions. We recommend creating a read-only token:

npm token create --read-only

有关创建访问令牌(包括 CIDR 白名单令牌)的更多信息,请参阅“创建访问令牌”。

For more information on creating access tokens, including CIDR-whitelisted tokens, see "Creating an access token".

持续部署

Continuous deployment

由于持续部署环境通常涉及创建部署工件,因此你可能希望在网站上创建一个 自动化令牌。即使你的账户启用了双重身份验证,这也将允许你发布。

Since continuous deployment environments usually involve the creation of a deploy artifact, you may wish to create an automation token on the website. This will allow you to publish even if you have two-factor authentication enabled on your account.

交互式工作流程

Interactive workflows

如果你的工作流程生成了一个包,但你在验证后手动发布它,那么你将需要创建一个具有读写权限的令牌,这些权限是通过标准令牌创建命令授予的:

If your workflow produces a package, but you publish it manually after validation, then you will want to create a token with read and write permissions, which are granted with the standard token creation command:

npm token create

CIDR 白名单

CIDR whitelists

为了提高安全性,你可以使用只能在特定 IP 地址范围内使用的 CIDR 白名单令牌。你可以将 CIDR 白名单与读取和发布令牌或只读令牌一起使用:

For increased security, you may use a CIDR-whitelisted token that can only be used from a certain IP address range. You can use a CIDR whitelist with a read and publish token or a read-only token:

npm token create --cidr=[list]
npm token create --read-only --cidr=[list]

示例:

Example:

npm token create --cidr=192.0.2.0/24

欲了解更多信息,请参阅“创建和查看身份验证令牌”。

For more information, see "Creating and viewing authentication tokens".

将令牌设置为 CI/CD 服务器上的环境变量

Set the token as an environment variable on the CI/CD server

在 CI/CD 服务器中将你的令牌设置为环境变量或密钥。

Set your token as an environment variable, or a secret, in your CI/CD server.

例如,在 GitHub Actions 中,你将 添加你的令牌作为密码。然后,你可以将秘密提供给工作流。

For example, in GitHub Actions, you would add your token as a secret. Then you can make the secret available to workflows.

如果你将密钥命名为 NPM_TOKEN,那么你将希望从该密钥创建一个名为 NPM_TOKEN 的环境变量。

If you named the secret NPM_TOKEN, then you would want to create an environment variable named NPM_TOKEN from that secret.

steps:
- run: |
npm install
- env:
NPM_TOKEN: ${{ secrets.NPM_TOKEN }}

有关更多详细信息,请参阅 CI/CD 服务器的文档。

Consult your CI/CD server's documentation for more details.

创建并签入一个特定于项目的 .npmrc 文件

Create and check in a project-specific .npmrc file

使用带有令牌变量的项目特定 .npmrc 文件,通过 npm 安全地验证 CI/CD 服务器。

Use a project-specific .npmrc file with a variable for your token to securely authenticate your CI/CD server with npm.

  1. 在项目的根目录下,创建一个自定义的 .npmrc 文件,内容如下:

    In the root directory of your project, create a custom .npmrc file with the following contents:

    //registry.npmjs.org/:_authToken=${NPM_TOKEN}

    注意:你正在指定字面量值 ${NPM_TOKEN}。npm cli 会将这个值替换为 NPM_TOKEN 环境变量的内容。不要将令牌放入此文件中。

    Note: that you are specifying a literal value of ${NPM_TOKEN}. The npm cli will replace this value with the contents of the NPM_TOKEN environment variable. Do not put a token in this file.

  2. 签入 .npmrc 文件。

    Check in the .npmrc file.

保护你的令牌

Securing your token

你的令牌可能有权读取私有包、代表你发布新包或更改用户或包设置。保护你的令牌。

Your token may have permission to read private packages, publish new packages on your behalf, or change user or package settings. Protect your token.

不要将你的令牌添加到版本控制或不安全地存储它。将其存储在密码管理器、云提供商的安全存储或 CI/CD 提供商的安全存储中。

Do not add your token to version control or store it insecurely. Store it in a password manager, your cloud provider's secure storage, or your CI/CD provider's secure storage.

如果可能,请使用具有最低必要权限的精细访问令牌,并为你的令牌设置较短的到期日期。欲了解更多信息,请参阅“关于访问令牌”。

When possible, use granular access tokens with the minimum permissions necessary, and set short expiration dates for your tokens. For more information, see "About access tokens."

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