npm-link

符号链接包文件夹

选择 CLI 版本:

概要

Synopsis

npm link [<package-spec>]
alias: ln

描述

Description

这对于安装你自己的东西很方便,这样你就可以在它上面工作和迭代测试,而不必不断地重建。

This is handy for installing your own stuff, so that you can work on it and test iteratively without having to continually rebuild.

包链接是一个两步过程。

Package linking is a two-step process.

首先,没有参数的包文件夹中的 npm link 将在全局文件夹 {prefix}/lib/node_modules/<package> 中创建一个符号链接,该符号链接链接到执行 npm link 命令的包。它还将封装中的任何垃圾箱链接到 {prefix}/bin/{name}。请注意,npm link 使用全局前缀(参见 npm prefix -g 的值)。

First, npm link in a package folder with no arguments will create a symlink in the global folder {prefix}/lib/node_modules/<package> that links to the package where the npm link command was executed. It will also link any bins in the package to {prefix}/bin/{name}. Note that npm link uses the global prefix (see npm prefix -g for its value).

接下来,在某个其他位置,npm link package-name 将创建一个从全局安装的 package-name 到当前文件夹的 node_modules/ 的符号链接。

Next, in some other location, npm link package-name will create a symbolic link from globally-installed package-name to node_modules/ of the current folder.

请注意,package-name 取自 package.json,而不是目录名称。

Note that package-name is taken from package.json, not from the directory name.

包名称可以选择以范围为前缀。见 scope。范围必须以 @ 符号开头,后跟斜杠。

The package name can be optionally prefixed with a scope. See scope. The scope must be preceded by an @-symbol and followed by a slash.

在为 npm publish 创建 tarball 时,如果链接包包含在 bundleDependencies 中,则通过解析符号链接,链接的包将 "snapshotted" 恢复到其当前状态。

When creating tarballs for npm publish, the linked packages are "snapshotted" to their current state by resolving the symbolic links, if they are included in bundleDependencies.

例如:

For example:

cd ~/projects/node-redis # go into the package directory
npm link # creates global link
cd ~/projects/node-bloggy # go into some other package directory.
npm link redis # link-install the package

现在,对 ~/projects/node-redis 的任何更改都将反映在 ~/projects/node-bloggy/node_modules/node-redis/ 中。请注意,链接应该指向包名称,而不是该包的目录名称。

Now, any changes to ~/projects/node-redis will be reflected in ~/projects/node-bloggy/node_modules/node-redis/. Note that the link should be to the package name, not the directory name for that package.

你也可以将这两个步骤合二为一。例如,以更短的方式执行上述用例:

You may also shortcut the two steps in one. For example, to do the above use-case in a shorter way:

cd ~/projects/node-bloggy # go into the dir of your main project
npm link ../node-redis # link the dir of your dependency

第二行相当于做:

The second line is the equivalent of doing:

(cd ../node-redis; npm link)
npm link redis

即它首先创建一个全局链接,然后将全局安装目标链接到你项目的 node_modules 文件夹中。

That is, it first creates a global link, and then links the global installation target into your project's node_modules folder.

请注意,在这种情况下,你指的是目录名称 node-redis,而不是包名称 redis

Note that in this case, you are referring to the directory name, node-redis, rather than the package name redis.

如果你的链接包有范围(参见 scope),你的链接命令必须包含该范围,例如

If your linked package is scoped (see scope) your link command must include that scope, e.g.

npm link @myorg/privatepackage

警告

Caveat

请注意,默认情况下,以这种方式链接的包依赖不会保存到 package.json,假设目的是让链接代表常规的非链接依赖。否则,例如,如果你依赖 redis@^3.0.1,并运行 npm link redis,它将用 file:../path/to/node-redis 替换 ^3.0.1 依赖,这可能是你不想要的!此外,如果你项目中的其他用户或开发者的文件夹设置与你的文件夹不完全相同,他们也会遇到问题。

Note that package dependencies linked in this way are not saved to package.json by default, on the assumption that the intention is to have a link stand in for a regular non-link dependency. Otherwise, for example, if you depend on redis@^3.0.1, and ran npm link redis, it would replace the ^3.0.1 dependency with file:../path/to/node-redis, which you probably don't want! Additionally, other users or developers on your project would run into issues if they do not have their folders set up exactly the same as yours.

如果要添加新的依赖作为链接,则应通过运行 npm install <dep> --package-lock-only 将其添加到相关元数据中。

If you are adding a new dependency as a link, you should add it to the relevant metadata by running npm install <dep> --package-lock-only.

如果要将 file: 引用保存在 package.jsonpackage-lock.json 文件中,可以使用 npm link <dep> --save 来执行此操作。

If you want to save the file: reference in your package.json and package-lock.json files, you can use npm link <dep> --save to do so.

工作区使用情况

Workspace Usage

npm link <pkg> --workspace <name> 将相关包链接为指定工作区的依赖。请注意,如果没有冲突的依赖,它实际上可能链接到父项目的 node_modules 文件夹。

npm link <pkg> --workspace <name> will link the relevant package as a dependency of the specified workspace(s). Note that It may actually be linked into the parent project's node_modules folder, if there are no conflicting dependencies.

npm link --workspace <name> 将创建到指定工作区的全局链接。

npm link --workspace <name> will create a global link to the specified workspace(s).

配置

Configuration

save

  • 默认值:true 除非在使用 npm update 时默认为 false

    Default: true unless when using npm update where it defaults to false

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

将已安装的包作为依赖保存到 package.json 文件中。

Save installed packages to a package.json file as dependencies.

npm rm 命令一起使用时,从 package.json 中删除依赖。

When used with the npm rm command, removes the dependency from package.json.

如果设置为 false,也会阻止写入 package-lock.json

Will also prevent writing to package-lock.json if set to false.

save-exact

  • 默认值:false

    Default: false

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

保存到 package.json 的依赖将使用精确的版本进行配置,而不是使用 npm 的默认 semver 范围运算符。

Dependencies saved to package.json will be configured with an exact version rather than using npm's default semver range operator.

global

  • 默认值:false

    Default: false

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

在 "global" 模式下运行,以便将包安装到 prefix 文件夹而不是当前工作目录。有关行为差异的更多信息,请参见 文件夹

Operates in "global" mode, so that packages are installed into the prefix folder instead of the current working directory. See folders for more on the differences in behavior.

  • 包安装到 {prefix}/lib/node_modules 文件夹,而不是当前工作目录。

    packages are installed into the {prefix}/lib/node_modules folder, instead of the current working directory.

  • bin 文件链接到 {prefix}/bin

    bin files are linked to {prefix}/bin

  • 手册页链接到 {prefix}/share/man

    man pages are linked to {prefix}/share/man

install-strategy

  • 默认值:"hoisted"

    Default: "hoisted"

  • 类型:"hoisted"、"nested"、"shallow" 或 "linked"

    Type: "hoisted", "nested", "shallow", or "linked"

设置在 node_modules 中安装包的策略。提升(默认):在顶层安装非复制,并在目录结构中根据需要复制。nested:(以前的 --legacy-bundling)就地安装,无需提升。浅层(以前的 --global-style)只在顶层安装直接的 deps。linked:(实验)安装在 node_modules/.store 中,链接到位,未提升。

Sets the strategy for installing packages in node_modules. hoisted (default): Install non-duplicated in top-level, and duplicated as necessary within directory structure. nested: (formerly --legacy-bundling) install in place, no hoisting. shallow (formerly --global-style) only install direct deps at top-level. linked: (experimental) install in node_modules/.store, link in place, unhoisted.

legacy-bundling

  • 默认值:false

    Default: false

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

  • DEPRECATED:此选项已被 --install-strategy=nested 弃用

    DEPRECATED: This option has been deprecated in favor of --install-strategy=nested

不要在 node_modules 中提升包安装,而是以与它们所依赖的方式相同的方式安装包。这可能会导致非常深的目录结构和重复的软件包安装,因为没有数据去重。设置 --install-strategy=nested

Instead of hoisting package installs in node_modules, install packages in the same manner that they are depended on. This may cause very deep directory structures and duplicate package installs as there is no de-duplicating. Sets --install-strategy=nested.

global-style

  • 默认值:false

    Default: false

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

  • DEPRECATED:此选项已被 --install-strategy=shallow 弃用

    DEPRECATED: This option has been deprecated in favor of --install-strategy=shallow

仅在顶层 node_modules 中安装直接依赖,但提升更深层次的依赖。设置 --install-strategy=shallow

Only install direct dependencies in the top level node_modules, but hoist on deeper dependencies. Sets --install-strategy=shallow.

strict-peer-deps

  • 默认值:false

    Default: false

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

如果设置为 true,而 --legacy-peer-deps 没有设置,那么任何冲突的 peerDependencies 都将被视为安装失败,即使 npm 可以根据非对等依赖合理地猜测出适当的解决方案。

If set to true, and --legacy-peer-deps is not set, then any conflicting peerDependencies will be treated as an install failure, even if npm could reasonably guess the appropriate resolution based on non-peer dependency relationships.

默认情况下,依赖图中的冲突 peerDependencies 将使用最近的非对等依赖规范来解决,即使这样做会导致某些包收到超出其包的 peerDependencies 对象中设置的范围的对等依赖。

By default, conflicting peerDependencies deep in the dependency graph will be resolved using the nearest non-peer dependency specification, even if doing so will result in some packages receiving a peer dependency outside the range set in their package's peerDependencies object.

当执行这样的覆盖时,会打印一条警告,解释冲突和涉及的包。如果设置了 --strict-peer-deps,则此警告被视为失败。

When such an override is performed, a warning is printed, explaining the conflict and the packages involved. If --strict-peer-deps is set, then this warning is treated as a failure.

package-lock

  • 默认值:true

    Default: true

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

如果设置为 false,则安装时忽略 package-lock.json 文件。如果 save 为真,这也将阻止写入 package-lock.json

If set to false, then ignore package-lock.json files when installing. This will also prevent writing package-lock.json if save is true.

omit

  • 默认值:'dev' 如果 NODE_ENV 环境变量设置为 'production',否则为空。

    Default: 'dev' if the NODE_ENV environment variable is set to 'production', otherwise empty.

  • 类型:"dev"、"optional"、"peer"(可多次设置)

    Type: "dev", "optional", or "peer" (can be set multiple times)

要从磁盘上的安装树中省略的依赖类型。

Dependency types to omit from the installation tree on disk.

请注意,这些依赖仍会被解析并添加到 package-lock.jsonnpm-shrinkwrap.json 文件中。它们只是没有物理安装在磁盘上。

Note that these dependencies are still resolved and added to the package-lock.json or npm-shrinkwrap.json file. They are just not physically installed on disk.

如果一个包类型同时出现在 --include--omit 列表中,那么它将被包括在内。

If a package type appears in both the --include and --omit lists, then it will be included.

如果生成的省略列表包含 'dev',则 NODE_ENV 环境变量将针对所有生命周期脚本设置为 'production'

If the resulting omit list includes 'dev', then the NODE_ENV environment variable will be set to 'production' for all lifecycle scripts.

include

  • 默认值:

    Default:

  • 类型:"prod"、"dev"、"optional"、"peer"(可多次设置)

    Type: "prod", "dev", "optional", or "peer" (can be set multiple times)

允许定义要安装的依赖类型的选项。

Option that allows for defining which types of dependencies to install.

这是 --omit=<type> 的倒数。

This is the inverse of --omit=<type>.

--include 中指定的依赖类型将不会被忽略,无论命令行中指定省略/包含的顺序如何。

Dependency types specified in --include will not be omitted, regardless of the order in which omit/include are specified on the command-line.

ignore-scripts

  • 默认值:false

    Default: false

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

如果为 true,npm 不会运行 package.json 文件中指定的脚本。

If true, npm does not run scripts specified in package.json files.

请注意,如果设置了 ignore-scripts,则明确旨在运行特定脚本的命令(例如 npm startnpm stopnpm restartnpm testnpm run-script)仍将运行其预期的脚本,但它们不会运行任何前置或后置脚本。

Note that commands explicitly intended to run a particular script, such as npm start, npm stop, npm restart, npm test, and npm run-script will still run their intended script if ignore-scripts is set, but they will not run any pre- or post-scripts.

audit

  • 默认值:true

    Default: true

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

当 "true" 将审计报告与当前 npm 命令一起提交到默认注册表和为范围配置的所有注册表时。有关提交内容的详细信息,请参阅 npm audit 的文档。

When "true" submit audit reports alongside the current npm command to the default registry and all registries configured for scopes. See the documentation for npm audit for details on what is submitted.

  • 默认值:true

    Default: true

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

告诉 npm 为包的可执行文件创建符号链接(或 Windows 上的 .cmd 垫片)。

Tells npm to create symlinks (or .cmd shims on Windows) for package executables.

设置为 false 使其不执行此操作。这可以用来解决某些文件系统不支持符号链接的事实,即使在表面上是 Unix 系统上也是如此。

Set to false to have it not do this. This can be used to work around the fact that some file systems don't support symlinks, even on ostensibly Unix systems.

fund

  • 默认值:true

    Default: true

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

当 "true" 在每个 npm install 的末尾显示消息时,确认正在寻找资金的依赖的数量。详见 npm fund

When "true" displays the message at the end of each npm install acknowledging the number of dependencies looking for funding. See npm fund for details.

dry-run

  • 默认值:false

    Default: false

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

表示你不希望 npm 进行任何更改,并且它应该只报告它会做的事情。这可以传递到任何修改本地安装的命令中,例如 installupdatededupeuninstall 以及 packpublish

Indicates that you don't want npm to make any changes and that it should only report what it would have done. This can be passed into any of the commands that modify your local installation, eg, install, update, dedupe, uninstall, as well as pack and publish.

注意:其他网络相关命令不支持此功能,例如 dist-tagsowner 等。

Note: This is NOT honored by other network related commands, eg dist-tags, owner, etc.

workspace

  • 默认值:

    Default:

  • 类型:字符串(可以设置多次)

    Type: String (can be set multiple times)

启用在当前项目的已配置工作区的上下文中运行命令,同时通过仅运行此配置选项定义的工作区进行过滤。

Enable running a command in the context of the configured workspaces of the current project while filtering by running only the workspaces defined by this configuration option.

workspace 配置的有效值为:

Valid values for the workspace config are either:

  • 工作区名称

    Workspace names

  • 工作区目录的路径

    Path to a workspace directory

  • 父工作区目录的路径(将导致选择该文件夹中的所有工作区)

    Path to a parent workspace directory (will result in selecting all workspaces within that folder)

npm init 命令设置时,可以将其设置为尚不存在的工作区的文件夹,以创建文件夹并将其设置为项目中的全新工作区。

When set for the npm init command, this may be set to the folder of a workspace which does not yet exist, to create the folder and set it up as a brand new workspace within the project.

此值不会导出到子进程的环境中。

This value is not exported to the environment for child processes.

workspaces

  • 默认值:null

    Default: null

  • 类型:空值或布尔值

    Type: null or Boolean

设置为 true 可在所有已配置工作区的上下文中运行该命令。

Set to true to run the command in the context of all configured workspaces.

显式将此设置为 false 将导致像 install 这样的命令完全忽略工作区。未明确设置时:

Explicitly setting this to false will cause commands like install to ignore workspaces altogether. When not set explicitly:

  • node_modules 树上运行的命令(安装、更新等)会将工作区链接到 node_modules 文件夹。* 执行其他操作(测试、执行、发布等)的命令将在根项目上运行,除非在 workspace 配置中指定了一个或多个工作区。

    Commands that operate on the node_modules tree (install, update, etc.) will link workspaces into the node_modules folder. - Commands that do other things (test, exec, publish, etc.) will operate on the root project, unless one or more workspaces are specified in the workspace config.

此值不会导出到子进程的环境中。

This value is not exported to the environment for child processes.

include-workspace-root

  • 默认值:false

    Default: false

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

为命令启用工作区时包括工作区根。

Include the workspace root when workspaces are enabled for a command.

当为 false 时,通过 workspace 配置指定单个工作区,或通过 workspaces 标志指定所有工作区,将导致 npm 仅在指定的工作区上运行,而不是在根项目上运行。

When false, specifying individual workspaces via the workspace config, or all workspaces via the workspaces flag, will cause npm to operate only on the specified workspaces, and not on the root project.

此值不会导出到子进程的环境中。

This value is not exported to the environment for child processes.

  • 默认值:false

    Default: false

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

设置文件时:协议依赖将作为常规依赖打包和安装,而不是创建符号链接。此选项对工作区没有影响。

When set file: protocol dependencies will be packed and installed as regular dependencies instead of creating a symlink. This option has no effect on workspaces.

也可以看看

See Also

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