npm-install

安装包

选择 CLI 版本:

概要

Synopsis

npm install [<package-spec> ...]
aliases: add, i, in, ins, inst, insta, instal, isnt, isnta, isntal, isntall

描述

Description

此命令安装一个包和它所依赖的任何包。如果包有一个包锁,或者一个 npm 收缩封装文件,或者一个 Yarn 锁文件,依赖的安装将由它驱动,遵循以下优先顺序:

This command installs a package and any packages that it depends on. If the package has a package-lock, or an npm shrinkwrap file, or a yarn lock file, the installation of dependencies will be driven by that, respecting the following order of precedence:

  • npm-shrinkwrap.json

  • package-lock.json

  • yarn.lock

package-lock.jsonnpm shrinkwrap

See package-lock.json and npm shrinkwrap.

一个 package 是:

A package is:

  • a) 包含由 package.json 文件描述的程序的文件夹

    a) a folder containing a program described by a package.json file

  • b) 一个 gzipped tarball,包含 (a)

    b) a gzipped tarball containing (a)

  • c) 解析为 (b) 的 url

    c) a url that resolves to (b)

  • d) 在注册表上发布的 <name>@<version>(参见 registry),带有 (c)

    d) a <name>@<version> that is published on the registry (see registry) with (c)

  • e) 指向 (d) 的 <name>@<tag>(见 npm dist-tag

    e) a <name>@<tag> (see npm dist-tag) that points to (d)

  • f) 具有满足 (e) 的 "latest" 标签的 <name>

    f) a <name> that has a "latest" tag satisfying (e)

  • g) 解决为 (a) 的 <git remote url>

    g) a <git remote url> that resolves to (a)

即使你从不发布你的包,如果你只是想写一个 node 程序(a),你仍然可以获得使用 npm 的很多好处,也许你还想在打包后能够轻松地安装它成一个 tarball (b)。

Even if you never publish your package, you can still get a lot of benefits of using npm if you just want to write a node program (a), and perhaps if you also want to be able to easily install it elsewhere after packing it up into a tarball (b).

  • npm install(在包目录中,无参数):

    npm install (in a package directory, no arguments):

    将依赖安装到本地 node_modules 文件夹。

    Install the dependencies to the local node_modules folder.

    在全局模式下(即,将 -g--global 附加到命令中),它将当前包上下文(即当前工作目录)安装为全局包。

    In global mode (ie, with -g or --global appended to the command), it installs the current package context (ie, the current working directory) as a global package.

    默认情况下,npm install 将安装 package.json 中列为依赖的所有模块。

    By default, npm install will install all modules listed as dependencies in package.json.

    使用 --production 标志(或者当 NODE_ENV 环境变量设置为 production 时),npm 将不会安装 devDependencies 中列出的模块。当 NODE_ENV 环境变量设置为 production 时,要安装 dependenciesdevDependencies 中列出的所有模块,你可以使用 --production=false

    With the --production flag (or when the NODE_ENV environment variable is set to production), npm will not install modules listed in devDependencies. To install all modules listed in both dependencies and devDependencies when NODE_ENV environment variable is set to production, you can use --production=false.

    注意:在向项目添加依赖时,--production 标志没有特殊含义。

    NOTE: The --production flag has no particular meaning when adding a dependency to a project.

  • npm install <folder>

    如果 <folder> 位于项目的根目录中,它的依赖将被安装,并且可能会像其他类型的依赖一样被提升到顶层 node_modules。如果 <folder> 位于项目根目录之外,npm 不会在目录 <folder> 中安装包依赖,但会创建到 <folder> 的符号链接。

    If <folder> sits inside the root of your project, its dependencies will be installed and may be hoisted to the top-level node_modules as they would for other types of dependencies. If <folder> sits outside the root of your project, npm will not install the package dependencies in the directory <folder>, but it will create a symlink to <folder>.

    注意:如果你想从注册表安装目录的内容(如包)而不是创建链接,则需要使用 --install-links 选项。

    NOTE: If you want to install the content of a directory like a package from the registry instead of creating a link, you would need to use the --install-links option.

    示例:

    Example:

    npm install ../../other-package --install-links
    npm install ./sub-package
  • npm install <tarball file>

    安装位于文件系统上的包。注意:如果你只想将一个 dev 目录链接到你的 npm 根目录,你可以使用 npm link 更容易地做到这一点。

    Install a package that is sitting on the filesystem. Note: if you just want to link a dev directory into your npm root, you can do this more easily by using npm link.

    压缩包要求:

    Tarball requirements:

    • 文件名必须使用 .tar.tar.gz.tgz 作为扩展名。

      The filename must use .tar, .tar.gz, or .tgz as the extension.

    • 包内容应位于 tarball 内的子文件夹中(通常称为 package/)。npm 在安装包时剥离一个目录层(运行 tar x --strip-components=1 的等效项)。

      The package contents should reside in a subfolder inside the tarball (usually it is called package/). npm strips one directory layer when installing the package (an equivalent of tar x --strip-components=1 is run).

    • 包必须包含具有 nameversion 属性的 package.json 文件。

      The package must contain a package.json file with name and version properties.

    示例:

    Example:

    npm install ./package.tgz
  • npm install <tarball url>

    获取 tarball url,然后安装它。为了区分此选项和其他选项,参数必须以 "http://" 或 "https://" 开头

    Fetch the tarball url, and then install it. In order to distinguish between this and other options, the argument must start with "http://" or "https://"

    示例:

    Example:

    npm install https://github.com/indexzero/forever/tarball/v0.5.6
  • npm install [<@scope>/]<name>

    进行 <name>@<tag> 安装,其中 <tag> 是 "tag" 配置。(见 config。该配置的默认值为 latest。)

    Do a <name>@<tag> install, where <tag> is the "tag" config. (See config. The config's default value is latest.)

    在大多数情况下,这将在 npm 注册表上安装标记为 latest 的模块版本。

    In most cases, this will install the version of the modules tagged as latest on the npm registry.

    示例:

    Example:

    npm install sax

    默认情况下,npm install 将任何指定的包保存到 dependencies 中。此外,你可以使用一些额外的标志来控制它们的保存位置和方式:

    npm install saves any specified packages into dependencies by default. Additionally, you can control where and how they get saved with some additional flags:

    • -P, --save-prod:包将出现在你的 dependencies 中。这是默认值,除非存在 -D-O

      -P, --save-prod: Package will appear in your dependencies. This is the default unless -D or -O are present.

    • -D, --save-dev:包将出现在你的 devDependencies 中。

      -D, --save-dev: Package will appear in your devDependencies.

    • -O, --save-optional:包将出现在你的 optionalDependencies 中。

      -O, --save-optional: Package will appear in your optionalDependencies.

    • --no-save:防止保存到 dependencies

      --no-save: Prevents saving to dependencies.

    当使用上述任何选项将依赖保存到 package.json 时,还有两个额外的可选标志:

    When using any of the above options to save dependencies to your package.json, there are two additional, optional flags:

    • -E, --save-exact:保存的依赖将使用精确的版本进行配置,而不是使用 npm 的默认 semver 范围运算符。

      -E, --save-exact: Saved dependencies will be configured with an exact version rather than using npm's default semver range operator.

    • -B, --save-bundle:保存的依赖也将添加到你的 bundleDependencies 列表中。

      -B, --save-bundle: Saved dependencies will also be added to your bundleDependencies list.

    此外,如果你有 npm-shrinkwrap.jsonpackage-lock.json,那么它也会被更新。

    Further, if you have an npm-shrinkwrap.json or package-lock.json then it will be updated as well.

    <scope> 是可选的。该包将从与指定范围关联的注册表中下载。如果没有注册表与给定范围关联,则假定为默认注册表。见 scope

    <scope> is optional. The package will be downloaded from the registry associated with the specified scope. If no registry is associated with the given scope the default registry is assumed. See scope.

    注意:如果你不在范围名称中包含 @ 符号,npm 会将其解释为 GitHub 存储库,请参见下文。范围名称后还必须跟一个斜杠。

    Note: if you do not include the @-symbol on your scope name, npm will interpret this as a GitHub repository instead, see below. Scopes names must also be followed by a slash.

    示例:

    Examples:

    npm install sax
    npm install githubname/reponame
    npm install @myorg/privatepackage
    npm install node-tap --save-dev
    npm install dtrace-provider --save-optional
    npm install readable-stream --save-exact
    npm install ansi-regex --save-bundle

    注意:如果当前工作目录中有一个名为 <name> 的文件或文件夹,那么它将尝试安装它,如果它无效,则仅尝试按名称获取包。

    Note: If there is a file or folder named <name> in the current working directory, then it will try to install that, and only try to fetch the package by name if it is not valid.

  • npm install <alias>@npm:<name>

    在自定义别名下安装包。允许并排同名包的多个版本,更方便地导入具有其他长包的名称,并使用 git forks 替换或复刻的 npm 包作为替换。别名仅适用于你的项目,不会重命名传递依赖中的包。别名应遵循 validate-npm-package-name 中规定的命名约定。

    Install a package under a custom alias. Allows multiple versions of a same-name package side-by-side, more convenient import names for packages with otherwise long ones, and using git forks replacements or forked npm packages as replacements. Aliasing works only on your project and does not rename packages in transitive dependencies. Aliases should follow the naming conventions stated in validate-npm-package-name.

    示例:

    Examples:

    npm install my-react@npm:react
    npm install jquery2@npm:jquery@2
    npm install jquery3@npm:jquery@3
    npm install npa@npm:npm-package-arg
  • npm install [<@scope>/]<name>@<tag>

    安装指定标签引用的包的版本。如果该包的注册表数据中不存在该标记,则此操作将失败。

    Install the version of the package that is referenced by the specified tag. If the tag does not exist in the registry data for that package, then this will fail.

    示例:

    Example:

    npm install sax@latest
    npm install @myorg/mypackage@latest
  • npm install [<@scope>/]<name>@<version>

    安装指定版本的包。如果版本尚未发布到注册表,这将失败。

    Install the specified version of the package. This will fail if the version has not been published to the registry.

    示例:

    Example:

    npm install sax@0.1.1
    npm install @myorg/privatepackage@1.5.0
  • npm install [<@scope>/]<name>@<version range>

    安装与指定版本范围匹配的包版本。这将遵循 package.json 中描述的解决依赖的相同规则。

    Install a version of the package matching the specified version range. This will follow the same rules for resolving dependencies described in package.json.

    请注意,大多数版本范围必须放在引号中,以便你的 shell 将其视为单个参数。

    Note that most version ranges must be put in quotes so that your shell will treat it as a single argument.

    示例:

    Example:

    npm install sax@">=0.1.0 <0.2.0"
    npm install @myorg/privatepackage@"16 - 17"
  • npm install <git remote url>

    从托管的 git 提供程序安装包,并使用 git 克隆它。对于完整的 git 远程 URL,只会尝试该 URL。

    Installs the package from the hosted git provider, cloning it with git. For a full git remote url, only that URL will be attempted.

    <protocol>://[<user>[:<password>]@]<hostname>[:<port>][:][/]<path>[#<commit-ish> | #semver:<semver>]

    <protocol>gitgit+sshgit+httpgit+httpsgit+file 之一。

    <protocol> is one of git, git+ssh, git+http, git+https, or git+file.

    如果提供了 #<commit-ish>,它将用于准确克隆该提交。如果 commit-ish 的格式为 #semver:<semver><semver> 可以是任何有效的 semver 范围或确切版本,npm 将在远程存储库中查找与该范围匹配的任何标记或引用,就像它查找注册表依赖一样。如果既没有指定 #<commit-ish> 也没有指定 #semver:<semver>,则使用存储库的默认分支。

    If #<commit-ish> is provided, it will be used to clone exactly that commit. If the commit-ish has the format #semver:<semver>, <semver> can be any valid semver range or exact version, and npm will look for any tags or refs matching that range in the remote repository, much as it would for a registry dependency. If neither #<commit-ish> or #semver:<semver> is specified, then the default branch of the repository is used.

    如果存储库使用子模块,这些子模块也将被克隆。

    If the repository makes use of submodules, those submodules will be cloned as well.

    如果正在安装的包中包含 prepare 脚本,则会安装它的 dependenciesdevDependencies,并在打包和安装包之前运行准备脚本。

    If the package being installed contains a prepare script, its dependencies and devDependencies will be installed, and the prepare script will be run, before the package is packaged and installed.

    以下 git 环境变量被 npm 识别,并在运行 git 时添加到环境中:

    The following git environment variables are recognized by npm and will be added to the environment when running git:

    • GIT_ASKPASS

    • GIT_EXEC_PATH

    • GIT_PROXY_COMMAND

    • GIT_SSH

    • GIT_SSH_COMMAND

    • GIT_SSL_CAINFO

    • GIT_SSL_NO_VERIFY

    有关详细信息,请参阅 git 手册页。

    See the git man page for details.

    示例:

    Examples:

    npm install git+ssh://git@github.com:npm/cli.git#v1.0.27
    npm install git+ssh://git@github.com:npm/cli#pull/273
    npm install git+ssh://git@github.com:npm/cli#semver:^5.0
    npm install git+https://isaacs@github.com/npm/cli.git
    npm install git://github.com/npm/cli.git#v1.0.27
    GIT_SSH_COMMAND='ssh -i ~/.ssh/custom_ident' npm install git+ssh://git@github.com:npm/cli.git
  • npm install <githubname>/<githubrepo>[#<commit-ish>]

  • npm install github:<githubname>/<githubrepo>[#<commit-ish>]

    通过尝试使用 git 克隆它,在 https://github.com/githubname/githubrepo 安装包。

    Install the package at https://github.com/githubname/githubrepo by attempting to clone it using git.

    如果提供了 #<commit-ish>,它将用于准确克隆该提交。如果 commit-ish 的格式为 #semver:<semver><semver> 可以是任何有效的 semver 范围或确切版本,npm 将在远程存储库中查找与该范围匹配的任何标记或引用,就像它查找注册表依赖一样。如果既没有指定 #<commit-ish> 也没有指定 #semver:<semver>,则使用默认分支。

    If #<commit-ish> is provided, it will be used to clone exactly that commit. If the commit-ish has the format #semver:<semver>, <semver> can be any valid semver range or exact version, and npm will look for any tags or refs matching that range in the remote repository, much as it would for a registry dependency. If neither #<commit-ish> or #semver:<semver> is specified, then the default branch is used.

    与常规 git 依赖一样,如果包在安装完成之前有 prepare 脚本,则将安装 dependenciesdevDependencies

    As with regular git dependencies, dependencies and devDependencies will be installed if the package has a prepare script before the package is done installing.

    示例:

    Examples:

    npm install mygithubuser/myproject
    npm install github:mygithubuser/myproject
  • npm install gist:[<githubname>/]<gistID>[#<commit-ish>|#semver:<semver>]

    通过尝试使用 git 克隆它,在 https://gist.github.com/gistID 安装包。与 gist 关联的 GitHub 用户名是可选的,不会保存在 package.json 中。

    Install the package at https://gist.github.com/gistID by attempting to clone it using git. The GitHub username associated with the gist is optional and will not be saved in package.json.

    与常规 git 依赖一样,如果包在安装完成之前有 prepare 脚本,则将安装 dependenciesdevDependencies

    As with regular git dependencies, dependencies and devDependencies will be installed if the package has a prepare script before the package is done installing.

    示例:

    Example:

    npm install gist:101a11beef
  • npm install bitbucket:<bitbucketname>/<bitbucketrepo>[#<commit-ish>]

    通过尝试使用 git 克隆它,在 https://bitbucket.org/bitbucketname/bitbucketrepo 安装包。

    Install the package at https://bitbucket.org/bitbucketname/bitbucketrepo by attempting to clone it using git.

    如果提供了 #<commit-ish>,它将用于准确克隆该提交。如果 commit-ish 的格式为 #semver:<semver><semver> 可以是任何有效的 semver 范围或确切版本,npm 将在远程存储库中查找与该范围匹配的任何标记或引用,就像它查找注册表依赖一样。如果既没有指定 #<commit-ish> 也没有指定 #semver:<semver>,则使用 master

    If #<commit-ish> is provided, it will be used to clone exactly that commit. If the commit-ish has the format #semver:<semver>, <semver> can be any valid semver range or exact version, and npm will look for any tags or refs matching that range in the remote repository, much as it would for a registry dependency. If neither #<commit-ish> or #semver:<semver> is specified, then master is used.

    与常规 git 依赖一样,如果包在安装完成之前有 prepare 脚本,则将安装 dependenciesdevDependencies

    As with regular git dependencies, dependencies and devDependencies will be installed if the package has a prepare script before the package is done installing.

    示例:

    Example:

    npm install bitbucket:mybitbucketuser/myproject
  • npm install gitlab:<gitlabname>/<gitlabrepo>[#<commit-ish>]

    通过尝试使用 git 克隆它,在 https://gitlab.com/gitlabname/gitlabrepo 安装包。

    Install the package at https://gitlab.com/gitlabname/gitlabrepo by attempting to clone it using git.

    如果提供了 #<commit-ish>,它将用于准确克隆该提交。如果 commit-ish 的格式为 #semver:<semver><semver> 可以是任何有效的 semver 范围或确切版本,npm 将在远程存储库中查找与该范围匹配的任何标记或引用,就像它查找注册表依赖一样。如果既没有指定 #<commit-ish> 也没有指定 #semver:<semver>,则使用 master

    If #<commit-ish> is provided, it will be used to clone exactly that commit. If the commit-ish has the format #semver:<semver>, <semver> can be any valid semver range or exact version, and npm will look for any tags or refs matching that range in the remote repository, much as it would for a registry dependency. If neither #<commit-ish> or #semver:<semver> is specified, then master is used.

    与常规 git 依赖一样,如果包在安装完成之前有 prepare 脚本,则将安装 dependenciesdevDependencies

    As with regular git dependencies, dependencies and devDependencies will be installed if the package has a prepare script before the package is done installing.

    示例:

    Example:

    npm install gitlab:mygitlabuser/myproject
    npm install gitlab:myusr/myproj#semver:^5.0

你可以组合多个参数,甚至多种类型的参数。例如:

You may combine multiple arguments and even multiple types of arguments. For example:

npm install sax@">=0.1.0 <0.2.0" bench supervisor

--tag 参数将适用于所有指定的安装目标。如果存在具有给定名称的标记,则标记的版本优先于较新的版本。

The --tag argument will apply to all of the specified install targets. If a tag with the given name exists, the tagged version is preferred over newer versions.

--dry-run 参数将以通常的方式报告在没有实际安装任何东西的情况下安装会完成的工作。

The --dry-run argument will report in the usual way what the install would have done without actually installing anything.

--package-lock-only 参数只会更新 package-lock.json,而不是检查 node_modules 和下载依赖。

The --package-lock-only argument will only update the package-lock.json, instead of checking node_modules and downloading dependencies.

-f--force 参数将强制 npm 获取远程资源,即使磁盘上存在本地副本。

The -f or --force argument will force npm to fetch remote resources even if a local copy exists on disk.

npm install sax --force

配置

Configuration

请参阅 config 帮助文档。许多配置参数对安装有一些影响,因为这是 npm 所做的大部分工作。

See the config help doc. Many of the configuration params have some effect on installation, since that's most of what npm does.

这些是与安装相关的一些最常见的选项。

These are some of the most common options related to installation.

save

  • 默认值:true 除非在使用 npm update 时默认为 false

    Default: true unless when using npm update where it defaults to false

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

将已安装的包作为依赖保存到 package.json 文件中。

Save installed packages to a package.json file as dependencies.

npm rm 命令一起使用时,从 package.json 中删除依赖。

When used with the npm rm command, removes the dependency from package.json.

如果设置为 false,也会阻止写入 package-lock.json

Will also prevent writing to package-lock.json if set to false.

save-exact

  • 默认值:false

    Default: false

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

保存到 package.json 的依赖将使用精确的版本进行配置,而不是使用 npm 的默认 semver 范围运算符。

Dependencies saved to package.json will be configured with an exact version rather than using npm's default semver range operator.

global

  • 默认值:false

    Default: false

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

在 "global" 模式下运行,以便将包安装到 prefix 文件夹而不是当前工作目录。有关行为差异的更多信息,请参见 文件夹

Operates in "global" mode, so that packages are installed into the prefix folder instead of the current working directory. See folders for more on the differences in behavior.

  • 包安装到 {prefix}/lib/node_modules 文件夹,而不是当前工作目录。

    packages are installed into the {prefix}/lib/node_modules folder, instead of the current working directory.

  • bin 文件链接到 {prefix}/bin

    bin files are linked to {prefix}/bin

  • 手册页链接到 {prefix}/share/man

    man pages are linked to {prefix}/share/man

install-strategy

  • 默认值:"hoisted"

    Default: "hoisted"

  • 类型:"hoisted"、"nested"、"shallow" 或 "linked"

    Type: "hoisted", "nested", "shallow", or "linked"

设置在 node_modules 中安装包的策略。提升(默认):在顶层安装非复制,并在目录结构中根据需要复制。nested:(以前的 --legacy-bundling)就地安装,无需提升。浅层(以前的 --global-style)只在顶层安装直接的 deps。linked:(实验)安装在 node_modules/.store 中,链接到位,未提升。

Sets the strategy for installing packages in node_modules. hoisted (default): Install non-duplicated in top-level, and duplicated as necessary within directory structure. nested: (formerly --legacy-bundling) install in place, no hoisting. shallow (formerly --global-style) only install direct deps at top-level. linked: (experimental) install in node_modules/.store, link in place, unhoisted.

legacy-bundling

  • 默认值:false

    Default: false

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

  • DEPRECATED:此选项已被 --install-strategy=nested 弃用

    DEPRECATED: This option has been deprecated in favor of --install-strategy=nested

不要在 node_modules 中提升包安装,而是以与它们所依赖的方式相同的方式安装包。这可能会导致非常深的目录结构和重复的软件包安装,因为没有数据去重。设置 --install-strategy=nested

Instead of hoisting package installs in node_modules, install packages in the same manner that they are depended on. This may cause very deep directory structures and duplicate package installs as there is no de-duplicating. Sets --install-strategy=nested.

global-style

  • 默认值:false

    Default: false

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

  • DEPRECATED:此选项已被 --install-strategy=shallow 弃用

    DEPRECATED: This option has been deprecated in favor of --install-strategy=shallow

仅在顶层 node_modules 中安装直接依赖,但提升更深层次的依赖。设置 --install-strategy=shallow

Only install direct dependencies in the top level node_modules, but hoist on deeper dependencies. Sets --install-strategy=shallow.

omit

  • 默认值:'dev' 如果 NODE_ENV 环境变量设置为 'production',否则为空。

    Default: 'dev' if the NODE_ENV environment variable is set to 'production', otherwise empty.

  • 类型:"dev"、"optional"、"peer"(可多次设置)

    Type: "dev", "optional", or "peer" (can be set multiple times)

要从磁盘上的安装树中省略的依赖类型。

Dependency types to omit from the installation tree on disk.

请注意,这些依赖仍会被解析并添加到 package-lock.jsonnpm-shrinkwrap.json 文件中。它们只是没有物理安装在磁盘上。

Note that these dependencies are still resolved and added to the package-lock.json or npm-shrinkwrap.json file. They are just not physically installed on disk.

如果一个包类型同时出现在 --include--omit 列表中,那么它将被包括在内。

If a package type appears in both the --include and --omit lists, then it will be included.

如果生成的省略列表包含 'dev',则 NODE_ENV 环境变量将针对所有生命周期脚本设置为 'production'

If the resulting omit list includes 'dev', then the NODE_ENV environment variable will be set to 'production' for all lifecycle scripts.

include

  • 默认值:

    Default:

  • 类型:"prod"、"dev"、"optional"、"peer"(可多次设置)

    Type: "prod", "dev", "optional", or "peer" (can be set multiple times)

允许定义要安装的依赖类型的选项。

Option that allows for defining which types of dependencies to install.

这是 --omit=<type> 的倒数。

This is the inverse of --omit=<type>.

--include 中指定的依赖类型将不会被忽略,无论命令行中指定省略/包含的顺序如何。

Dependency types specified in --include will not be omitted, regardless of the order in which omit/include are specified on the command-line.

strict-peer-deps

  • 默认值:false

    Default: false

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

如果设置为 true,而 --legacy-peer-deps 没有设置,那么任何冲突的 peerDependencies 都将被视为安装失败,即使 npm 可以根据非对等依赖合理地猜测出适当的解决方案。

If set to true, and --legacy-peer-deps is not set, then any conflicting peerDependencies will be treated as an install failure, even if npm could reasonably guess the appropriate resolution based on non-peer dependency relationships.

默认情况下,依赖图中的冲突 peerDependencies 将使用最近的非对等依赖规范来解决,即使这样做会导致某些包收到超出其包的 peerDependencies 对象中设置的范围的对等依赖。

By default, conflicting peerDependencies deep in the dependency graph will be resolved using the nearest non-peer dependency specification, even if doing so will result in some packages receiving a peer dependency outside the range set in their package's peerDependencies object.

当执行这样的覆盖时,会打印一条警告,解释冲突和涉及的包。如果设置了 --strict-peer-deps,则此警告被视为失败。

When such an override is performed, a warning is printed, explaining the conflict and the packages involved. If --strict-peer-deps is set, then this warning is treated as a failure.

prefer-dedupe

  • 默认值:false

    Default: false

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

如果可能,最好对包进行数据去重,而不是选择更新版本的依赖。

Prefer to deduplicate packages if possible, rather than choosing a newer version of a dependency.

package-lock

  • 默认值:true

    Default: true

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

如果设置为 false,则安装时忽略 package-lock.json 文件。如果 save 为真,这也将阻止写入 package-lock.json

If set to false, then ignore package-lock.json files when installing. This will also prevent writing package-lock.json if save is true.

package-lock-only

  • 默认值:false

    Default: false

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

如果设置为 true,当前操作将只使用 package-lock.json,忽略 node_modules

If set to true, the current operation will only use the package-lock.json, ignoring node_modules.

对于 update,这意味着只会更新 package-lock.json,而不是检查 node_modules 并下载依赖。

For update this means only the package-lock.json will be updated, instead of checking node_modules and downloading dependencies.

对于 list,这意味着输出将基于 package-lock.json 描述的树,而不是 node_modules 的内容。

For list this means the output will be based on the tree described by the package-lock.json, rather than the contents of node_modules.

foreground-scripts

  • 默认值:false

    Default: false

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

在前台进程中运行已安装包的所有构建脚本(即 preinstallinstallpostinstall)脚本,与主 npm 进程共享标准输入、输出和错误。

Run all build scripts (ie, preinstall, install, and postinstall) scripts for installed packages in the foreground process, sharing standard input, output, and error with the main npm process.

请注意,这通常会使安装运行速度变慢,并且噪音更大,但对调试很有用。

Note that this will generally make installs run slower, and be much noisier, but can be useful for debugging.

ignore-scripts

  • 默认值:false

    Default: false

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

如果为 true,npm 不会运行 package.json 文件中指定的脚本。

If true, npm does not run scripts specified in package.json files.

请注意,如果设置了 ignore-scripts,则明确旨在运行特定脚本的命令(例如 npm startnpm stopnpm restartnpm testnpm run-script)仍将运行其预期的脚本,但它们不会运行任何前置或后置脚本。

Note that commands explicitly intended to run a particular script, such as npm start, npm stop, npm restart, npm test, and npm run-script will still run their intended script if ignore-scripts is set, but they will not run any pre- or post-scripts.

audit

  • 默认值:true

    Default: true

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

当 "true" 将审计报告与当前 npm 命令一起提交到默认注册表和为范围配置的所有注册表时。有关提交内容的详细信息,请参阅 npm audit 的文档。

When "true" submit audit reports alongside the current npm command to the default registry and all registries configured for scopes. See the documentation for npm audit for details on what is submitted.

  • 默认值:true

    Default: true

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

告诉 npm 为包的可执行文件创建符号链接(或 Windows 上的 .cmd 垫片)。

Tells npm to create symlinks (or .cmd shims on Windows) for package executables.

设置为 false 使其不执行此操作。这可以用来解决某些文件系统不支持符号链接的事实,即使在表面上是 Unix 系统上也是如此。

Set to false to have it not do this. This can be used to work around the fact that some file systems don't support symlinks, even on ostensibly Unix systems.

fund

  • 默认值:true

    Default: true

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

当 "true" 在每个 npm install 的末尾显示消息时,确认正在寻找资金的依赖的数量。详见 npm fund

When "true" displays the message at the end of each npm install acknowledging the number of dependencies looking for funding. See npm fund for details.

dry-run

  • 默认值:false

    Default: false

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

表示你不希望 npm 进行任何更改,并且它应该只报告它会做的事情。这可以传递到任何修改本地安装的命令中,例如 installupdatededupeuninstall 以及 packpublish

Indicates that you don't want npm to make any changes and that it should only report what it would have done. This can be passed into any of the commands that modify your local installation, eg, install, update, dedupe, uninstall, as well as pack and publish.

注意:其他网络相关命令不支持此功能,例如 dist-tagsowner 等。

Note: This is NOT honored by other network related commands, eg dist-tags, owner, etc.

cpu

  • 默认值:null

    Default: null

  • 类型:空值或字符串

    Type: null or String

覆盖要安装的原生模块的 CPU 架构。可接受的值与 package.json 的 cpu 字段相同,该字段来自 process.arch

Override CPU architecture of native modules to install. Acceptable values are same as cpu field of package.json, which comes from process.arch.

os

  • 默认值:null

    Default: null

  • 类型:空值或字符串

    Type: null or String

覆盖要安装的原生模块的操作系统。可接受的值与 package.json 的 os 字段相同,该字段来自 process.platform

Override OS of native modules to install. Acceptable values are same as os field of package.json, which comes from process.platform.

libc

  • 默认值:null

    Default: null

  • 类型:空值或字符串

    Type: null or String

覆盖要安装的原生模块的 libc。可接受的值与 package.json 的 libc 字段相同

Override libc of native modules to install. Acceptable values are same as libc field of package.json

workspace

  • 默认值:

    Default:

  • 类型:字符串(可以设置多次)

    Type: String (can be set multiple times)

启用在当前项目的已配置工作区的上下文中运行命令,同时通过仅运行此配置选项定义的工作区进行过滤。

Enable running a command in the context of the configured workspaces of the current project while filtering by running only the workspaces defined by this configuration option.

workspace 配置的有效值为:

Valid values for the workspace config are either:

  • 工作区名称

    Workspace names

  • 工作区目录的路径

    Path to a workspace directory

  • 父工作区目录的路径(将导致选择该文件夹中的所有工作区)

    Path to a parent workspace directory (will result in selecting all workspaces within that folder)

npm init 命令设置时,可以将其设置为尚不存在的工作区的文件夹,以创建文件夹并将其设置为项目中的全新工作区。

When set for the npm init command, this may be set to the folder of a workspace which does not yet exist, to create the folder and set it up as a brand new workspace within the project.

此值不会导出到子进程的环境中。

This value is not exported to the environment for child processes.

workspaces

  • 默认值:null

    Default: null

  • 类型:空值或布尔值

    Type: null or Boolean

设置为 true 可在所有已配置工作区的上下文中运行该命令。

Set to true to run the command in the context of all configured workspaces.

显式将此设置为 false 将导致像 install 这样的命令完全忽略工作区。未明确设置时:

Explicitly setting this to false will cause commands like install to ignore workspaces altogether. When not set explicitly:

  • node_modules 树上运行的命令(安装、更新等)会将工作区链接到 node_modules 文件夹。* 执行其他操作(测试、执行、发布等)的命令将在根项目上运行,除非在 workspace 配置中指定了一个或多个工作区。

    Commands that operate on the node_modules tree (install, update, etc.) will link workspaces into the node_modules folder. - Commands that do other things (test, exec, publish, etc.) will operate on the root project, unless one or more workspaces are specified in the workspace config.

此值不会导出到子进程的环境中。

This value is not exported to the environment for child processes.

include-workspace-root

  • 默认值:false

    Default: false

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

为命令启用工作区时包括工作区根。

Include the workspace root when workspaces are enabled for a command.

当为 false 时,通过 workspace 配置指定单个工作区,或通过 workspaces 标志指定所有工作区,将导致 npm 仅在指定的工作区上运行,而不是在根项目上运行。

When false, specifying individual workspaces via the workspace config, or all workspaces via the workspaces flag, will cause npm to operate only on the specified workspaces, and not on the root project.

此值不会导出到子进程的环境中。

This value is not exported to the environment for child processes.

  • 默认值:false

    Default: false

  • 类型:布尔值

    Type: Boolean

设置文件时:协议依赖将作为常规依赖打包和安装,而不是创建符号链接。此选项对工作区没有影响。

When set file: protocol dependencies will be packed and installed as regular dependencies instead of creating a symlink. This option has no effect on workspaces.

算法

Algorithm

给定一个 package{dep} 结构:A{B,C}, B{C}, C{D},npm install 算法产生:

Given a package{dep} structure: A{B,C}, B{C}, C{D}, the npm install algorithm produces:

A
+-- B
+-- C
+-- D

也就是说,从 B 到 C 的依赖通过 A 已经导致 C 安装在更高级别的事实来满足。D 仍然安装在顶层,因为它没有任何冲突。

That is, the dependency from B to C is satisfied by the fact that A already caused C to be installed at a higher level. D is still installed at the top level because nothing conflicts with it.

对于 A{B,C}, B{C,D@1}, C{D@2},此算法产生:

For A{B,C}, B{C,D@1}, C{D@2}, this algorithm produces:

A
+-- B
+-- C
`-- D@2
+-- D@1

因为 B 的 D@1 将安装在顶层,所以 C 现在必须为自己私下安装 D@2。该算法是确定性的,但如果请求以不同顺序安装两个依赖,则可能会生成不同的树。

Because B's D@1 will be installed in the top-level, C now has to install D@2 privately for itself. This algorithm is deterministic, but different trees may be produced if two dependencies are requested for installation in a different order.

有关 npm 创建的特定文件夹结构的更详细说明,请参阅 文件夹

See folders for a more detailed description of the specific folder structures that npm creates.

也可以看看

See Also

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